Global Monitoring Report 2007 Milenium Development Goals
A new round of goals is now under definition, aiming at fully addressing the large concept of sustainable development included in the Millennium Declaration. A new framework, an intersectoral approach and strong commitments by governments and donors would be of primary importance to define effective goals and translate them into reality. The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Glob Health Action v. Glob Health Action. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The Millennium Development Goals MDGs are eight international development goals to be achieved by addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Keywords: Millennium Development Goals, sustainable development, equity, education, accountability, governments, post agenda.
Open in a separate window. MDGs achievements and failures To assure an appropriate monitoring and evaluation within and among countries and to conceive suitable policies and interventions, reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG indicators are of primary importance. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption World Bank Target 2.
Halve, between and , the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 4. Ensure that, by , children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 6. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by , and in all levels of education no later than 9. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector ILO Reduce by two-thirds, between and , the under-five mortality rate Reduce by three-quarters, between and , the maternal mortality ratio Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate UN Population Division 19a.
Contraceptive prevalence rate UN Population Division Have halted by and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria WHO Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis WHO Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources Proportion of land area covered by forest FAO Proportion of population using solid fuels WHO Target Halve, by , the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Have achieved by a significant improvement in the lives of at least million slum dwellers Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction both nationally and internationally Target Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states through the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and 22nd General Assembly provisions Target Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Official development assistance ODA Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services IMF-World Bank Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries, Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states Target In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth Unemployment rate of young people aged 15—24 years, each sex and total ILO Target In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis WHO Target In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per population ITU Personal computers in use per population and Internet users per population ITU.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and their relevance to higher education in Kosovo
Discussion on the effectiveness of the MDGs As reported above, a major part of the MDGs has been at least partially accomplished and many countries are on the way to achieving the MDGs and trying to adopt a sustainable path The new goals: picking and choosing Everyone who has a cause wants a goal: however, to be successful the new goals should be limited to a few.
Summary and conclusions The MDGs have focused world attention on the needs of the poorest and driven countries and donors commitments to the achievement of common goals. Conflict of interest and funding The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. References 1. United Nations. Official list of MDG indicators. Available from: www. New York: United Nations; Resolution adopted by the General Assembly.
United Nations Millennium Declaration. Financing of global health: tracking development assistance for health from to Commitments for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. High-level event. Keeping the promise: united to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
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United Nations Development Programme. Making the MDGs work. Brussels: European Commission; Millennium Development Goals at midpoint: where do we stand and where do we need to go? MDG indicators. The official site for the MDG indicators. A World of information. MDG monitor. Track, learn, support. World Health Organization. Health in the post UN development agenda.
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Maternal mortality for countries, — a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. Identifying synergies and complementarities between MDGs: results from cluster analysis. Soc Indicat Res. UN System Task Team. Building on the MDGs to bring sustainable development to the post development agenda.
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Niger J Clin Pract. Poverty reduction and Millennium Development Goals: recognizing population, health, and environment linkages in rural Madagascar. Introduction Due to the political situation in the Balkans, Kosovo, and other countries in the region, are lagging behind other European countries with factual and developmental data. Nevertheless, the presence of international organizations after the war has aided in the building of a basic and applied research system, through project expertise and financing. The role of higher education institutions is of crucial and everlasting importance to Kosovo, particularly in research conduction.
The role of international and supra-national organizations to the implementation of Millennium Development Goals has proved essential. In the context of some meta-analytic research of various reports commissioned by public and international organizations and institutions, this research paper will seek to shed light to the particular role of HE to MDGs and vice-versa.
The focus of this article is placed on the role of academia as a catalyst towards accelerating the process of achieving the MDGs. Although MDGs are interconnected and the malfunction of one of them can affect all others like a chain reaction, the most vulnerable and elusive goals in Kosovo are examined in this paper: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 1 , Achieve Universal Primary Education Goal 2 , Reduce Child Mortality and Improve Maternal Health.
The following sections will further explain why. The goal for promoting gender equality and empowering women is presented as a success story of all actors involved in its attainment: government, civil society and higher education — University of Prishtina. In February 17th, Kosovo was declared independent and is now recognized as a sovereign state by 75 UN countries. As of Kosovo has a new constitution and is de facto under the governance of the Republic of Kosovo. Two parallel public higher education institutions function in Kosovo: the Albanian controlled University of Prishtina and the Serbian controlled University of northern Mitrovica, which is considered an illegal institution by the Kosovo Ministry of Education Tahirsylaj, The unstable political climate which has its roots in the old conflict between the two ethnicities that live in Kosovo Albanians and Serbs , also hinders cooperation between the two universities.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology did not have access to the University of Mitrovica and, thus, the strategy of the development of higher education from does not include any information on this institution Tahirsylaj, Therefore, this paper will focus on the role and the relevance of Millennium Development Goals to the University of Prishtina and vice-versa.
The measuring, monitoring and reporting of progress on the MDGs in Kosovo are the main highlights. Review of progress and shortfalls of Millennium Development Goals in Kosovo Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Eradicating extreme poverty and reducing relative poverty are two of the most challenging goals in Kosovo thus far.
Thus, halving the poverty rate is the most challenging goal for Kosovo, which has languished behind this target 11 years after the conflict and 3 years since its independence. The rural area - where the majority of Kosovars live - face the greatest difficulties in achieving this goal. As indicated in reports by the World Bank and UNDP, absolute poverty dropped in but dramatically increased in throughout Absolute poverty has been successfully halved in urban areas but is still a problem in rural areas where poverty has, in fact, increased.
Source: UNDP Failure to achieve this goal has impact on the rest of the chain from the top to bottom; eradicating poverty has the potential to accelerate the completion of other MDGs if properly handled.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Reasons for the current predicament mainly stem from side effects of the conflict, such as loss of property due to destruction and displacement. Trepca mining complex, the largest industrial site in Kosovo, was closed down due to the continuing tensioned political situation between the Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanian. Other manufactories were either burned or closed down due to cases of corruption. CFCs have already been phased out in developed countries, and developing countries are on track to do so by Similarly, every region has reduced its consumption of other ozone-depleting substances.
However, countries have yet to completely eliminate their use, which is in accordance with the timelines proposed under the Protocol.
Complicating the issue is the fact that significant amounts of CFCs continue to be produced and traded illegally. Management of ODS stockpiles is another concern, since the cost of destroying them is high and environmentally unsound disposal methods could spew disastrous amounts of ozone depleting substances into the atmosphere. Maintaining momentum and funding for the final phase-out and for monitoring the ozone layer is crucial to a happy conclusion to this unprecedented international success story.
The Montreal Protocol catalysed global action to reduce use of chemicals damaging to the ozone layer that shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation. Since that agreement, developed countries have virtually eliminated ozone-depleting substances, and the developing world is not far behind. Without these reductions, ozone depletion would have increased tenfold by compared to current levels, resulting in millions more cases of melanoma, other cancers and eye cataracts. Through unprecedented global cooperation, use of chlorofluorocarbons, the most widespread ozone-depleting substances, has been reduced to one tenth of levels.
This remarkable accomplishment shows that progress on the environment can be achieved with strong political will and with consensus on the problem and on how to solve it. Though damage to the ozone layer is already evident, recovery is expected within the next 50 years. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has demonstrated the effectiveness of concerted multilateral action, resulting in a large decrease in global consumption of chlorofluorocarbons, mostly in the developed countries formerly the overwhelmingly dominant users of these gases.
The consumption of these gases by developing countries has also declined by about half since Consumption in developing countries stood at just over , tonnes in the mid s but is now down to less than 90, tonnes". Through specific initiatives, t he OzonAction Branch also contributes to the implementation of one or more Millennium Development Goals, for example:. The multi-partner, public-private SolarChill initiative contributes to:.